|The Atlantic Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology|
Address of the Atlantic Branch
Director of the Atlantic Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology - Sivkov Vadim V. , Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences
The most important results of research
Data of the three-year monitoring of the Kurshsky Bay and the offshore area of the Baltic Sea in the Kaliningrad region have been generalized. Trends have become apparent towards a decrease of biodiversity and zoobenthos biomass and a number of trophic groups, and towards an increase of the share of indiscriminately swallowing and collecting detritus-feeders in the Kurshsky Bay. Productivity and diversity level of zoobenthic communities in the offshore area of the sea is shown. Environmental influence on the distribution and biology of cladocerans has been determined. New data has been obtained on the biology and distribution of non-endemic species in the Vislinsky and Kurshsky bays of the Baltic Sea (Ezhova E.E.).
A numerical model of wave motions in the Baltic Sea coastal zone has been created. Climatic trends in the variations of the sea surface temperature (SST) fields in the Gulf Stream and the Newfoundland energy active zones (EAZO) have been determined for the recent decades along with synoptic, seasonal and annual SST variability and interrelations between variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation, development of blocking processes in the atmospheric circulation above the North Atlantic and SST anomalies in the Norwegian EAZO region. The Atlas entitled "Sea surface temperature and surface atmospheric pressure in the Newfoundland EAZO" has been prepared for publication (Ivanov S.V., Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of marine meteorology, the Atlantic Department of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Hydrophysical processes responsible for the state of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, including horizontal and vertical transport processes in different basins under varying stratification conditions, have been studied. The resulting data characterize the development in time and space of water warming in the coastal zone and determine the along-shore thermal front formation as temperature passes through the maximum sea water density point (Paka V.T., Head of the Laboratory of experimental hydrophysical studies, the Atlantic Department of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Heat, moisture and impulse fluxes have been calculated within the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the North and the Central Atlantic. The calculations were based on the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), 1950-1995, with the use of S.K. Gulev`s methods (1989, 1990). Seasonal and interannual variability of the fluxes have been studied and locations of the energy-active sources (regions, zones) within the area under study have been determined (Dubravin V.F., Doctor of Geographic Sciences, Laboratory of marine meteorology, the Atlantic Department of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Experimental studies have been carried out under the programme of monitoring burial places of chemical weapons. Sediment microbiota and near-bottom water have been sampled, geochemical and hydrophysical observations have been made and objects on the sea floor have been mapped using of a high-frequency side scan sonar. Microstructural alternations in the Bornholm Strait and a "great inflow" of the North Sea waters to the Baltic Sea have been investigated. Cross sections and TS-diagrams have been constructed (Paka V.T., Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Deputy Director of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology for the Atlantic Department).
A scheme of the near-bottom currents in the Gdansk basin has been reconstructed. The reconstruction is based on the "Parasound" profiler records, long sediment cores, a bathymetric map and a sediment thickness map. When studying the distribution along the slope of the near-bottom stratified currents a discrepancy between the frontal divides was found in impulse (velocity) and mass (density). The analysis has shown that this circumstance may be one of the factors that determines the resuspension of bottom sediments as the near-bottom currents front is propagating (Emel'yanov E.M., Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, principal researcher, Gritsenko V.A., Professor, principal researcher, the Atlantic Department).
The near-bottom currents of the Antarctic water in the Brazil basin and the western part of the Equatorial Atlantic have been reconstructed. Seismic records of the "Parasound" profiler and sediment cores have been used as a basis for the reconstructions (Emel'yanov E.M., Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, principal researcher, the Atlantic Department).
Recent origin has been proved and alkaline basalt-like magmatism and hydrothermal activity characteristics have been given as being associated with the existence of stationary magmatic chambers on two underwater volcano mountains in the Greenland Sea. Geochemical differences have been established in Mesozoic basalts of the Franz Josef Land and King Karls Land caused by different geodynamic conditions of their fusion (continental riftogenesis - the initial stage of oceanic spreading) (Kharin G.S., Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, principal researcher, the Atlantic Department).
The role of benthos in the sedimentation in the Visla lagoon of the Baltic Sea has been shown for the first time. A relationship has been established between the distribution of zoobenthos biomass, sediment types and sedimentation peculiarities. A scale has been developed and a map has been drawn of the degree of bioturbation in the lagoon. The studies undertaken are of a practical importance mainly for fish conservation and ecological research (Chubarenko B.V., Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Ezhova E.E., principal researchers, the Atlantic Department).
A quantitative pattern of the sea shore dynamics of the Visla spit as a whole and of separate sea shore elements has been obtained by a geodetic method of monitoring the sea shores which is the only one method giving quantitative parameters of sea shore development trends and shore dynamics as dependent on different hydrometeorological situations. The data of monitoring are used when planning and utilizing a unique resort object (Boldyrev V.L., Candidate of Geographic Sciences, the Atlantic Department).
Based on the geoinformation technologies, the evolution of the Baltic Sea bottom topography in the course of Scandinavian deglaciation (8-12 thousand years ago) has been traced. GIS design methods have been worked out for paleoreconstructions in the Baltic Sea region (Sivkov V.V., Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, the Atlantic Department).
Data on arsenic distribution in the Baltic Sea sediments have been generalized. Arsenic is localized in the burial places of chemical weapons on the sea floor and near river mouths to where the decay products of agricultural pesticides are washed down (Emel'yanov E.M., Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, principal researcher, Laboratory of ocean geology, the Atlantic Department).
Geological-geophysical and hydrophysical studies have been carried out within the framework of the first annual cycle of ecological monitoring of the Kravtsovsk oilfield (the south-eastern Baltic Sea). The in-situ data have been used to reveal the influence of stratification on suspended matter dynamics in the near-bottom layer of the sea and to investigate the effects of storms and the Kaliningrad earthquake (Sivkov V.V., Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, principal researcher, the Atlantic Department).